Marginal utility

law of diminishing marginal utility

Marginal Utility Understanding Marginal Utility. Economists use the idea of marginal utility to gauge how satisfaction levels affect... Types of Marginal Utility. There are multiple kinds of marginal utility. Positive marginal utility occurs when... History of Marginal Utility. The concept of. Marginal utility is the extra benefit derived from consuming one more unit of a specific good or service. The main types of marginal utility include positive marginal utility, zero marginal utility, and negative marginal utility. Consumers often experience higher marginal utility when marginal cost is lower Marginal utility, in economics, the additional satisfaction or benefit (utility) that a consumer derives from buying an additional unit of a commodity or service. The concept implies that the utility or benefit to a consumer of an additional unit of a product is inversely related to the number o The Use of Marginal Utility in Economics Marginal Analysis in Economics. Marginal Utility. Marginal utility, then, asks how much a one-unit change in a variable will impact our utility (that... Calculating Marginal Utility Without Calculus. And you're asked Suppose you have 3 baseball cards and 2.

Marginal Utility Definitio

  1. ishing marginal utility and was first proposed by the German Economist H.H.Gossen in the 19 th century
  2. e the number... 3. Find the.
  3. g one more unit of a commodity. Assumptions of Marginal Utility Analysis Quick summary with storie
  4. Definition and Explanation: Marginal utilitymeans an additional or incremental utility. Marginal utility is the change in the total utility that results from unit one unit change in consumption of the commodity within a give
  5. g total income in one period and nothing in the second

Marginal Utility - Overview, Types, Practical Example

The term Marginal Utility refers to the satisfaction gained by a consumer on consuming an additional unit of a good or service. Basically, a consumer's perceived total satisfaction or benefit changes for every additional unit of a good, i.e. it may increase until a certain point in time and then the trend reverses Marginal utility theory Marginal utility theory examines the increase in satisfaction consumers gain from consuming an extra unit of a good. Utility is an idea that people get a certain level of satisfaction/happiness/utility from consuming goods and service. Marginal utility is the benefit of consuming an extra uni The marginal utility starts to diminish when the person using the item begins to ascribe a lower value (price) to the same item that the person was ready to buy (had bought) earlier. For example, a thirsty person is ready to pay $10 (MU) for a water bottle costing $5 (MC), but can't find one. The person then eats an apple and temporarily slakes thirst. At this point in time, since the thirst. Definition: The Marginal Utility refers to the additional benefit (utility) a consumer derives from the consumption of one additional unit of good or service. In other words, marginal utility is the addition to the total utility resulting from the consumption of one additional unit of the commodity

Marginal Utility is the enjoyment a consumer gains from each additional unit they consume. It calculates utility beyond the first product consumed (the marginal amount). For example, you may buy an iced doughnut. In turn, you receive a certain level of utility or satisfaction from it. After that, you may decide to buy another, receiving further utility and satisfaction. The utility gained from. marginal utility function [WIRTSCH.] die Grenznutzenfunktion diminishing marginal utility [WIRTSCH.] abnehmender Grenznutzen marginal utility theory of interest Grenznutzentheorie des Zinses theory of marginal utility die Grenznutzentheorie law of diminishing marginal utility [WIRTSCH.] erstes Gossensches (auch: Gossen'sches) Gesetz law of diminishing marginal utility [WIRTSCH. The equation is equivalent to: MUx / MUy = Px/Py, so the ratio of the marginal utilities is equal to the ratio of prices. Therefore, increasing your collection by a marginal unit of X (& decreasing by a marginal unit of Y) has the same utility and same cost as the initial collection Marginal Utility Definition. The concept of utility measures the satisfaction consumers derive from the consumption of goods and services. Marginal utility is specifically the utility that consumers derive from the consumption of additional units of goods and services.. In other words, it is the difference or change in satisfaction with an extra unit of consumption

marginal utility of income declines as income increases. One needs this pa-rameter for cost-benefit analysis, for optimal taxation and for the (Atkin-son) measurement of inequality. We estimate this parameter using four large cross-sectional surveys of subjective happiness and two panel sur-veys. Altogether, the data cover over 50 countries and time periods be- tween 1972 and 2005. In each of. Marginal utility is the concept used by economists to quantify the amount of satisfaction that is gained by consumption of additional units of a good or service. It is an important concept that is used by economists to determine how much quantity of an item a customer is willing to purchase Marginal utility for movies (column 6) also follows the expected pattern: each additional movie brings a smaller gain in utility than the previous one. The first movie José attends is the one he wanted to see the most, and thus provides him with the highest level of utility or satisfaction. The fifth movie he attends is just to kill time. Notice that total utility is also the sum of the. Marginal utility and willingness to pay. Marginal utility is the change in total satisfaction from consuming an extra unit of a good or service. Beyond a certain point, marginal utility may start to fall (diminish) In our example, this happens with the 4th unit where MU falls to 12; The 8th unit carries zero marginal utility i.e. total utility stays the same ; If marginal utility is falling. Negative marginal utility. This is when there is a negative rate of change in the total utility between unit amounts. In the soda example, we see a negative marginal utility between the third and fourth sodas. Marginal Utility Per Dollar Spent. With marginal utility, you can calculate a dollar amount to know how efficient and effective you are with your money. This can help you compare one.

Marginal utility economics Britannic

marginal {adj} Grenz-marginal {adj} grenzwertig: marginal {adj} knapp: marginal {adj} marginal: marginal {adj} Rand-spec. marginal {adj} randständig: marginal: Randwert {m} comp. utility: Dienstprogramm {n} utility: Nutzen {m} utility: Nützlichkeit {f} comp. utility: Utility {n} econ. utility: Versorger {m} [Unternehmen] utility: Verwendbarkeit {f} marginal {adj} [slight] geringfügig: sociol. marginal [person Marginal utility may decrease into negative utility, as it may become entirely unfavorable to consume another unit of any product. Therefore, the first unit of consumption for any product is. The marginal utility they get will therefore influence their willingness to pay for something. If there are diminishing marginal returns, then people's willingness to pay will also decline. Hence the individual demand curve will be downward-sloping. Price and quantity demanded for most goods and services will be inversely related Zero marginal utility occurs when consuming more of an item brings no extra measure of satisfaction whereas Negative marginal utility occurs where you have too much of an item, and therefore consuming more can actually be harmful. How To Calculate Marginal Utility . Marginal utility can also be explained as the difference between the total utilities of the two successive units. For example.

This utility function is separable and has the property that the marginal utility of money is 1/ ln(m) for - m large. From the Cambridge English Corpus For example, there may be a diminishing marginal utility for injured parties that ought not be factored into the compensation that is owed Total and Marginal utility. The consideration of families as owners of the productive and income-earning resources is analyzed elsewhere in this course. Here we will consider them only as demanders of goods and services so we will refer to these economic agents with the term 'consumers'. By analyzing consumption at the end of the last century, neoclassical economists, following the ideas. Marginal utility is the utility you gain or lose by increasing or decreasing the amount of a product or service. A calculation called a utility function can be used to describe the relationship between total utility and different amounts of the good or service. If you are given measurements of total utility for different amounts of the good or service, you can use subtraction to calculate the. Marginal utility is the change in total satisfaction from consuming an extra unit of a good or service Beyond a certain point, marginal utility may start to fall (diminish) In our example, this happens with the 4th unit where MU falls to 12 The 8th unit carries zero marginal utility i.e. total utility stays the sam

What Is Marginal Utility in Economics? - ThoughtC

Artblog | Michael Vass – The Old Ways at Marginal Utility

Marginal Utility means the amount of utility a person gets from the consumption of each successive unit of a commodity. In general, the total utility increases as more of a commodity is consumed. As against this, the marginal utility decreases with each additional unit of a commodity consumed Marginal utility shapes an individual demand curve, as the utility from extra units declines, consumers are willing to pay a lower price - hence a downwardly sloping demand curve. How individuals achieve utility maximisation. How much to consume? A consumer will consume a good up to the point where the marginal utility is greater than or equal to the price. If you feel a sandwich gives you. Utility maximization: equalizing marginal utility per dollar AP® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which has not reviewed this resource. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere How to Calculate Marginal Utility. The Utility can be seen as the value a customer puts on a particular good or service. In simple terms, it can be defined as how much an individual is willing to pay for a good. For example, an art collector notices on social media that one of his favorite artists' work is at an auction. The collector races to the sale, ready to write a check. Although the. Diminishing Marginal Utility of Income. The assumption of diminishing marginal utility is difficult for economists to accept because diminishing marginal utility of income is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for any result in standard consumer theory. The best case for it is the demand for insurance under expected utility maximization, which assumes invariance only up to linear.

According to the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility, marginal utility of a good diminishes as an individual consumes more units of a good. In other words, as a consumer takes more units of a good, the extra utility or satisfaction that he derives from an extra unit of the good goes on falling. It should be carefully noted that is the marginal. [...] behind this is the concept of falling marginal utility: utility is greater if a person [...] consumes the same amount of income in each of two periods rather than consuming total income in one period and nothing in the second Marginal Utility is the change in the utility derived from the consumption of an additional unit of a good. Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility Graph If we were to represent the law of diminishing marginal utility using a graph, it would look like the figure below

Marginal Utility (Definition,Examples) What is the Law

Marginal utility means the utility or the benefit or the satisfaction that is gained from consuming additional unit of a product. For example, if you are extremely hungry on a road trip, you won't mind paying Rs 100 for consuming a Maggi plate on the highway Marginal utility is the additional utility derived by an individual from the consumption of one or more unit of a commodity. Boulding defined marginal utility as the increase in the total utility which results from a unit increase in consumption.Marginal utility denotes the in the total utility due to the change in quantity consumed of commodity Marginal utility is the value that an individual enjoys by purchasing one more item. As a general principle, marginal utility declines the more you buy. If you have a lot of something, having one more is of less value to you. The following are illustrative examples

How to Calculate Marginal Utility (With Example) Indeed

  1. We considered the marginal utility of jelly beans and the marginal utility of M&Ms. We can combine these ideas to figure out what would happen if I experienced simultaneous changes in the amount of jelly beans and M&Ms in my possession, but marginal utility is always defined with respect to a specific good. Formal Definition of Marginal Utility
  2. g a given total quantity of a good or service, while marginal utility is the satisfaction gained from consu
  3. There is often something extra satisfying about obtaining or using more than one of a certain item, whether that item is a can of soda, a pair of jeans, or an airline ticket. The extra satisfaction is an economic term called marginal utility
  4. g Re.1 = 1 utils), then such individuals will continue his/her consumption until marginal utility of that commodity equals its price. It is also known as the consumer's equilibrium
  5. The law of equi-marginal utility explains such consumer's behavior when the consumer has limited resources and unlimited wants. Because of this reason, the law of equi-marginal utility is further referred to as the law of maximum satisfaction, the principle of income allocation, the law of economy in expenditure or the law of substitution
  6. Marginal Utility and Grizzly Grizzly are proud to present Formed Under Pressure, a group exhibition featuring the work of Lola Buck, Kevin Lee and Jessica Stanhagen. This exhibition, presented by the Studio Art MFA graduating class at The University [] Read More » Exercises in Ineffability 02 . 22 May - 26 July 2020. Screening and Online Opening Reception Friday, 29 May from 5:00 - 7.
  7. The amount by which an individual's utility would be increased if given a small quantity of additional money, per unit of the increase. Additional money can increase utility in two ways. First, it is an addition to the wealth that a consumer can allocate to consumption. The marginal utility of money is then derived through the additional consumption it finances

When the marginal utility falls, consumers do not prefer to pay high price. Therefore, the seller has to reduce the price of the commodity, if he or she wants to sell more. In this way, the law plays a crucial role in determining price of a commodity. Water - Diamond Paradox. The principle of diminishing marginal utility is beneficial to understand the difference between value-in-use and. Marginal utility definition is - the amount of additional utility provided by an additional unit of an economic good or service

Marginal Utility Analysis: Law of Diminishing Utility with

The marginal utility curve slopes downward due to diminishing marginal utility; each additional clam gives Cassie less utility than the previous clam. Note that the 9th clam is too much. The Principle of Diminishing Marginal Utility •The marginal utility of a good or service is the change in total utility generated by consuming one additional unit of that good or service. The marginal. Marginal Utility is the change in total utility due to a one-unit change in the level of consumption Consumption Consumption is defined as the use of goods and services by a household. It is a component in the calculation of the Gross Domestic Product. The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility states the marginal utility gradually decreases with the level of consumption, u tility being defined. Marginal utility and marginal benefit. How you would spend $5 on chocolate and fruitMore free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=Kf9KhwryQN The Marginal Utility of Money is Not Constant . The theory is based on the assumption that the marginal utility of money is constant. But that is not really so. 3. The Measurement of Utility is not Possible . Marshall states that the price a consumer is willing to pay for a commodity is equal to its marginal utility. But modern economists argue that, if two persons are paying an equal price.

marginal utility [FINAN.] der Grenznutzen Pl.: die Grenznutzen money of payment die Zahlungswährung marginal efficiency of investment [Abk.: MEI] [FINAN.] Grenzleistungsfähigkeit der Investition marginal product of capital [Abk.: MPK] [WIRTSCH.] Grenzprodukt des Kapitals marginal rate of substitution [Abk.: MRS] [FINAN.] marginale Zahlungsbereitschaft [Abk.: MZB c. marginal utility diminishes when too much is consumed d. increasing consumption leads to smaller additions to total utility e. total utility actually decreases for some consumers if they consume too much. D. The paradox in the water-diamond paradox is that: a. water is very useful but has a low value and diamonds are less useful but have a high value b. diamonds are expensive and water is. Übersetzung für 'marginal utility' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen The marginal utility per rupee spent is the marginal utility obtained from the last unit of good consumed divided by the price of good (i.e., MU X /P X or MU Y /P Y). A consumer thus gets maximum utility from his limited income when the marginal utility per rupee spent is equal for all goods Definition von marginal utility im Englisch Englisch wörterbuch The additional utility to a consumer from an additional unit of an economic good (Ekonomi) The amount that utility increases with an increase of one unit of an economic good or service profit derived from each additional unit produced by a manufacturer (Economics) In economics, the additional satisfaction or benefit (utility.

Total Utility (TU) and Marginal Utility (MU) - Difference

  1. In fact, marginal utility indicates the consumers' willingness to pay for a commodity. Consumers will be ready to buy more and more units so long as marginal utility exceeds the market price of the commodity. Each household will stop purchasing the commodity when marginal utility, i.e., utility derived from the last unit consumed is greater than or at least equal to its price. A price rise.
  2. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'marginal utility dollar per' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltraine
  3. Law of Equi Marginal Utility: The law of equi marginal utility was presented in 19th century by an Australian economists H. H. Gossen. It is also known as law of maximum satisfaction or law of substitution or Gossen's second law. A consumer has number of wants. He tries to spend limited income on different things in such a way that marginal utility of all things is equal. When he buys several.
  4. ishing marginal utility refers to the phenomenon that each additional unit of gain leads to an ever-smaller increase in subjective value. For example, three bites of candy are better than two bites, but the twentieth bite does not add much to the experience beyond the nineteenth (and could even make it worse)

Marginal UtilityWhat It MeansMarginal utility is a concept used by economists to explain how consumer desire plays a role in determining prices for specific products and services. In economics the term utility refers to the amount of satisfaction a consumer receives from a specific good or service. From an economic standpoint, the usefulness of an object has no role in determining its utility. Marginal utility and the law of demand. The marginal utility is the change in wellbeing of consuming one more unit and is equivalent to the maximum willingness to pay for this additional unit. The law of diminishing marginal utility tells us that the change in wellbeing decreases as we consume more and more units. The willingness, therefore, to pay for one additional unit decreases as we consume more units. This implies that there is a negative relationship between the quantity consumers. Marginal utility is measures the increase in satisfaction consumers gain from consuming an extra unit of a goods or services.Marginal utility is calculated by taking the difference in total utilities, and dividing by the change in quantity consumed The increase in an individual's utility consequent on a small increase in their total wealth, per unit of the increase. If an individual is risk-averse the marginal utility of wealth is a decreasing function of wealth. The marginal utility of wealth is constant for a risk-neutral individual, and increasing for a risk-loving individual

marginal utility - Deutsch-Übersetzung - Linguee Wörterbuc

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility The law of diminishing marginal utility explains the relation between utility and quantity of a commodity. when a consumer gets more and more units of a commodity, during a particular time, the utility from the successive units will diminish. 25. Assumptions 1. Utility is cardinal 2. The consumer is rational 3. Constant Marginal Utility of Money 4. The consumer's income is limited and constant 5. The tastes and preferences of the consumer. Marginal utility refers to how much additional value/happiness is derived from one additional unit of the good or service. Most goods and services are said to have decreasing marginal utility. Decreasing marginal utility sounds like gibberish, but it's actually pretty easy to understand: First slice of apple pie: Yes, please Constant Marginal Utility of Money: The marginal utility of money remains constant whatever the level of consumer's income and each unit of money has utility equal to one. The utility is Additive: Cardinal school of utility analysis believes that utility derives from different goods can be added up. It can be expressed through the utility function. So the total utility can be obtained by adding the utilities obtained from the individual commodities. It can be expressed as Most people get little utility from $1, more from $10,000, and a lot of utility from $1,000,000. However, this flattens overtime due to diminishing marginal utility. A person's utility increases more when they go from $1 to $1,000,000 than it does when they go from $1,000,000 to $1,999,999 even though the increase is exactly the same

Marginal Utility Formula Calculator (Example with Excel

the marginal utility of water would rise, along with its price. If you paid $19.99 for a sweater you adored and that you would have paid $29.99 for, your. marginal utility is $10. In economic terms, your objective as a consumer is to. maximize the total utility you receive for the income spent. If a service were free, you would consume additional units of that service until your marginal. Marginal utility Marginality. The term marginal refers to a small change, starting from some baseline level. Frequently the marginal... Utility. Depending on which theory of utility is used, the interpretation of marginal utility can be meaningful or not. Diminishing marginal utility. This. Marginal Utility of money; Marginal Utility of price. Equilibrium MU m =MU x /P x . 2. Consumer Equilibrium in case of two commodities is represented in two ways. Utility approach (cardinal analysis) In this approach, consumer attain equilibrium in two conditions. a. When the price of the two commodities are the same or equa (ii) Marginal Utility of Money does not Remain Constant: In actual life we find that as the major part of income is spent and minor part of income remains with the consumer, he will spend the remaining part of income rationally and naturally the marginal utility of money will increase. The exchange value of money increases with the increase in its demand. (iii) Based on Subjectivity: The. MU is the marginal utility curve which slopes downward from left to right. It means that as a consumer consumes more and more units of a commodity, the marginal utility he derives from the additional unit of consumption goes on declining, becomes zero (at point D) and even negative (at point E and F .

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility in practice Predicting market trends of diminishing utility. The consumer will demand a product based on his anticipation of utility... Price determination and consumers' surplus. A consumer will always pay for the product based on his perception of the.... Marginal utility is a measure of the extra satisfaction (benefit or utility) you get when you add another consumption of goods or services. Say, you buy a second glass of Starbuck. This law states your satisfaction from the second glass is less than the first glass

Marginal utility theory - Economics Hel

The law of diminishing marginal utility states that the additional utility of a good (or service) decreases as its supply increases. This suggests that every additional unit that is consumed has a lower marginal utility than the unit before.At a certain point the additional utility can even become negative for some products Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS): Definition and Explanation: The concept of marginal rate substitution (MRS) was introduced by Dr. J.R. Hicks and Prof. R.G.D. Allen to take the place of the concept of d iminishing marginal utility. Allen and Hicks are of the opinion that it is unnecessary to measure the utility of a commodity. The necessity is to study the behavior of the consumer as to how he prefers one commodity to another and maintains the same level of satisfaction Marginal Utility Of Money. Marginal Utility of Money refers to 'worth of a rupee' to a consumer it means the utility consumed by a consumer in spending his one rupee. Example- if a consumer can buy 50 grams of rice , 30 grams of coffee and 100 gram of salt in one rupee and his total utility is 30 units then 30 is to be taken as its marginal. Marginal Utility (MU): Marginal utility is the additional utility derived from the consumption of one more unit of the given commodity. It is the utility derived from the last unit of a commodity purchased. As per given example, when 3 rd ice-cream is consumed, TU increases from 36 utils to 46 utils The law of diminishing marginal utility states that as more and more units of a commodity are consumed, the marginal utility derived from consuming additional units keeps on declining. It is also known as ' Fundamental Law of Satisfaction' or 'Fundamental Psychological Law' as it happens in respect of all goods and services

How to Calculate Marginal Utility: 11 Steps (with Pictures

Next, determine the marginal utility of good Y. Just as in step 1, determine the marginal utility of the other product. Finally, calculate the MRS. Calculate the marginal rate of substitution by using the formula MUx/MUy. FAQ. What is a marginal rate of substitution? A marginal rate of substitution is a measure of the amount of a product a consumer is willing to purchase, or consume, with. marginal utility the increase in satisfaction a consumer derives from the use or CONSUMPTION of one additional (incremental) unit of a good or service in a particular time period.For example, if a consumer, having eaten three bars of chocolate, then eats a fourth bar, his TOTAL UTILITY will increase, and if he goes on to eat a fifth bar, his total utility will increase further

What is Marginal Utility? definition and meaning

Marginal Utility Definition (Formula and Example) - BoyceWir

One set of assumptions that generates this convenient simplification is that the discount rate, , equals for marginal utility of consumption and utility discount factor , households maximize discounted utility with . banqueducanada.ca. banqueducanada.ca , où est l'utilité marginale de la consommation et est le facteur d'actualisation de l'utilité, que les ménages maximisent leur utilité. Marginal utility theory, which originated in the last third of the 19th century in opposition to Marx' labor theory of value, was elaborated by W. S. Jevons (Great Britain), L. M. E. Walras (Switzerland), and K. Menger and E. Böhm-Bawerk (Austria). Bourgeois economists were troubled by the fact that Marxist theory not only provides an explanation of the processes of price formation but also. marginal utility : German - English translations and synonyms (BEOLINGUS Online dictionary, TU Chemnitz

How Marginal Costs Differ from Average & Total Costs

Translations in context of marginal utility in English-Russian from Reverso Context: Some have collective shocks to the marginal utility of leisure View the profiles of people named Marginal Utility. Join Facebook to connect with Marginal Utility and others you may know. Facebook gives people the..

Consumer Equilibrium Formula | MicroeconomicsUtility Maximization with a Cobb-Douglas Utility FunctionDEMAND_WORKSHEETThe Market System in Economics: DefinitionTeori Produksi
  • Widerspruch Werbung DSGVO Muster.
  • Paulo Coelho Liebe Leseprobe.
  • Fernseher anschließen Kabel.
  • Big Boss Ulm.
  • Gruppenzusammenhalt stärken Kindergarten.
  • MRT Knie nüchtern.
  • Prime Video Chromecast iPhone.
  • Wie groß ist Jan Smit.
  • Tierstall Englisch.
  • Schokoladeneis Thermomix.
  • Windpark Borkum 2013.
  • It agile story mapping.
  • BEM Einladung Muster.
  • Horoskopbox Widder nächste Woche.
  • Alibaba Analysten.
  • Csgo premium cheat.
  • Musikerinnen Liste.
  • Hiltiprofile.
  • Kurzurlaub Italien mit Auto.
  • YouTube Bundeswehr.
  • Musikgarten Kurs.
  • Du hast mich nicht verdient Sprüche.
  • Warum heißt der Papagei Papagei.
  • Leistungsbewertung Sport Brandenburg 2020.
  • Autolack OBI.
  • Tourismus Spanien Geschichte.
  • 90 Tage Regelung Schweiz Steuern.
  • Business letter types.
  • Christina Scheib Instagram.
  • TUI Kroatien Hotel.
  • An wie vielen Unis darf man sich bewerben Medizin.
  • Definition Risikolebensmittel.
  • Kurden Menschenrechtsverletzungen.
  • Google Assistant findet Sonos nicht.
  • Betreuer verstirbt.
  • Dresscode Gartenparty Chic.
  • Shnorhavor Übersetzung.
  • Wo lebt Jogi Löw heute.
  • Eberhardt Reisen Baltikum.
  • Verkehrsinfo OÖ.
  • Yoga App Test 2020.